The Chinese government has passed sweeping new national cyber security rules that cover a wide range of areas, including defence, finance, science and technology.
Chinese president Xi Jinping and the National People's Congress (NPC) passed the rules this week, according to state-backed reports from the Xinhua news agency. Just one voter out of 155 declined to back the changes.
NPC spokeswoman Zheng Shuna said that the passing of the laws was led by "ever-growing security challenges" that are external and internal.
"We are under dual pressures. Externally speaking, the country must defend its sovereignty, security and development interests, and internally speaking, it must also maintain political security and social stability," she said.
China's efforts to protect its citizens from overseas content and its own systems from espionage and inspection are well documented, and China and the US regularly accuse each other of hacking attacks.
Some commentators during a press conference described the rules as too broad, but Zheng explained that they are designed to deal with an actual threat and to preserve the running of the Chinese state.
"Any government will stand firm and will not leave any room for disputes, compromises and interferences when it comes to protecting their core interests," she said.
"China is no exception. Internet space within the territories of the People's Republic of China is subject to the country's sovereignty."
The security of China and its people is already protected by the powerful and controversial Great Firewall of China, a censorship mechanism that stops content coming in and out of the country.
Less publicly obvious, but equally controversial, are the state-sponsored attacks of which the nation is accused.
The US often points the finger at China, and recently issued warrants for senior military staffers in the country.
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