Google and Oracle have disclosed the names of those it pays for writing articles and blogs.
The firms had been ordered to reveal such individuals and groups by Judge William Alsup, who presided over Oracle's lawsuit against Google over its Android operating system. On Friday, both firms revealed the names of individuals and organisations that they have paid.
While Google produced a lengthy list of organisations it contributes to, Oracle named only blogger Florian Mueller for consultation work, and Stanford University professor Paul Goldstein, who assisted a law firm that Oracle worked with.
Mueller's name on Oracle's list was not a surprise, as he had revealed receiving payments from Oracle in April 2012.
Mueller has previously admitted that he has been paid by firms such as Microsoft for competitive 'consultation services'. Oracle's latest disclosure will call into question the credibility of his blog, which was cited by many websites for his opinions on copyright and patent matters during the Oracle versus Google trial.
Google's list revealed a number of academic researchers in the fields of artificial intelligence, networking, privacy and security from top institutions including Cambridge, Harvard, Princeton and Stanford. The firm also listed groups such as the US Chamber of Commerce, the Interactive Advertising Bureau and Creative Commons.
Google also disclosed that it has paid both Democratic and Republican Governors Associations. However, the firm added that it had never paid anyone "to report or comment on any issues in this case".
The case took another turn when on Monday US District Judge William Alsup declared that Google had failed to fully comply with the disclosure order.
The judge has now given the search giant until 24 August to resubmit a corrected filing of paid commentators. Google had argued that it has paid so many commentators through ad revenue that it would be impossible to list them all.
That argument caused Judge Alsup to clarify what he is looking for in the disclosure.
"Google suggests that it has paid so many commentators that it will be impossible to list them all. Please simply do your best but the impossible is not required. Oracle managed to do it," Judge Alsup wrote in his latest call for disclosure.
"Google can do it too by listing all commentators known by Google to have received payments as consultants, contractors, vendors, or employees. As for organizations receiving money, they need not be listed unless one of its employees was a commenter. Gifts to universities can be ignored."
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