The controversial move will bring more contractors into the PAYE system. The rubber-stamping exercise required the Bill to be signed by Prince Charles and the Princess Royal as the Queen is out of the country.
Consultations between Customs and Excise and representatives of practitioners and service companies over draft guidance on how the new regime will work will now take place.
Following limited government concessions, some service companies will qualify as 'self-employed' and only be liable to pay NICs on that basis. They will escape the fate of companies that have to pay both employee and employer NICs because their proprietors are deemed to be 'employees'.
Molybdenum ditelluride is a two-dimensional material that can be easily stacked into multiple layers to create a memory cell
New light-guiding nanoscale device can control and monitor a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with high sensitivity
Optical traps are scientific instruments in which a focused laser beam is used to exert an attractive or repulsive force on a microscopic object to hold it in place
Scientists estimate that the exoplanet has already lost up to 35 per cent of its mass over its lifetime
The observations were made using the Atacama Array in the Chilean desert