Microsoft chairman Bill Gates has pledged that his company will continue to improve security in its products.
In an email sent to around a million people he quoted figures showing that corporate losses to hacking and other types of electronic attack exceeded $455m (£280m) in 2001.
According to Associated Press, Gates claimed that Microsoft will improve support for smart cards to deal with the security problem of passwords, which he described as "the weak link" in any network.
He said that all Microsoft employees use smart cards to access the company's computers from home or while travelling.
"Over time we expect that most businesses will go to smart card ID systems," he wrote.
Gates, who announced the company's Trustworthy Computing drive last year, explained that the training "taught program managers, architects and testers to think like attackers".
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