"This is the tip of the iceberg of a very oppressive regime that we have almost become accustomed to in America," said Chris Smith, a Republican and chairman of the House Human Rights Subcommittee.
The issue of Western media companies' compliance with Chinese policies will come before a hearing next week at Smith's committee.
Google was heavily criticised last month for giving in to Chinese government pressure to block politically sensitive terms on its new Chinese site. While Microsoft has upset human rights activists by blocking the blog of a Beijing government critic.
Yahoo spokeswoman Mary Osako said that Yahoo was unaware of the details of the latest case raised by Paris-based international rights group Reporters Without Borders.
The group claimed that Yahoo had provided electronic records to Chinese authorities which led to an eight-year prison sentence for writer Li Zhi in 2003.
Last year Yahoo was accused of giving information to Beijing which led to the imprisonment of reporter Shi Tao, who was sentenced to 10 years in April 2005.
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