Microsoft has engaged in a concerted series of actions designed to protect the barrier to entry, and hence its monopoly power, from a variety of middleware threats, including Netscape's web browser and Sun's implementation of Java. By constraining the freedom of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to implement certain software programs in the Windows boot sequence, Microsoft foreclosed an opportunity for OEMs to make Windows PC systems less confusing and more user-friendly. By pressuring Intel to drop the development of platform-level Native Signal Processing software - which would endow Intel microprocessors with enhanced video and graphics performance - and otherwise to cut back on its software development efforts, Microsoft deprived consumers of software innovation that they may have found valuable. Microsoft's tactics have unjustifiably distorted competition. The actions that Microsoft took against Navigator hobbled a form of innovation that had shown the potential to depress the barrier to entry sufficiently to enable other firms to compete against Microsoft. The campaign against Navigator also retarded widespread acceptance of Sun's Java implementation. This, together with actions that Microsoft took with the sole purpose of making it difficult for developers to write Java applications with technologies that would allow them to be ported between Windows and other platforms, impeded another form of innovation that bore the potential to diminish the applications barrier to entry. Microsoft has retarded, and perhaps altogether extinguished, the process by which these two middleware technologies could have facilitated competition. Through its conduct towards Netscape, IBM, Compaq, Intel and others, Microsoft has demonstrated that it will use its prodigious market power and immense profits to harm any firm that insists on pursuing initiatives that could intensify competition against one of Microsoft's core products. Microsoft's past success in hurting such companies and stifling innovation deters investment in technologies and businesses that exhibit the potential to threaten Microsoft. The ultimate result is that some innovations never occur for the sole reason they do not coincide with Microsoft's self-interest.
Ceres, located in the asteroid belt, has a carbonaceous-rich upper crust, SwRI study claims
The spacecraft found traces of hydrogen and oxygen molecules, known as hydroxyls, embedded in the rocky surface of the asteroid
The skeleton was unearthed more than 20 years ago in South Africa
Moon's dark side is mountainous, rugged and never visible from the Earth